Normal Anatomy
  • Umbilical arteries
    • right and left umbilical arteries branching from internal iliac arteries return deoxygenated blood from the fetus
      • single umbilical artery is associated with increased likelihood of congenital abnormalities
  • Umbilical vein
    • single umbilical vein returns oxygenated blood from placenta to fetus
  • Allantois 
    • forms the umbilical arteries and vein
  • Urachal duct 
    • a duct extending from yolk sac to apex of the bladder
    • yolk sac forms allantois which becomes urachus
      • during development, the lumen of the uraches closes
      • adult remnant is median umbilical ligament
    • if urachus fails to close
      • patent urachus
        • urine leaks from umbilicus
      • vesicourachal diverticulum
        • bladder protrudes from umbilicus
  • Vitelline duct (omphalomesenteric duct)
    • connects yolk sac to midgut, closes during week 7
    • if vitelline duct lumen fails to close then
      • vitelline fistula
        • meconium discharge from umbilicus
      • Meckel's diverticulum (see "Meckel's Diverticulitis") 
        • failure of lumen to close on side opening to ileum 
        • can have ectopic gastric mucosa leading to melena and RLQ pain



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