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Overview
  • Na+/K+ ATPase 
    • blocked by digoxin
  • Voltage gated (L-type) calcium channel (in ventricles)
    • indirectly blocked by β-blockers via ↓ cAMP
    • directly blocked by Ca2+ channel blockers
  • Ryanodine receptors
    • blocked by ryanodine toxin
  • Calcium interaction with troponin-tropomyosin system
    • enhanced by Ca2+sensitizers
  • β1 receptors
    • activated by β agonists
      • activate protein kinase A which activates L-type Ca2+channels and phospholamban
      • result is ↑ intracellular Ca2+ during contraction
    • blocked by β blockers (at SA and AV nodes and ventricles)
  • K+ current 
    • Adenosine increases K+ efflux out of cells leading to hyperpolarization
 
 

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