|
Overview
  • Phases of left ventricle   
    • isovolumetric contraction 
      • period between mitral valve closure and aortic valve opening
      • period of highest O2 consumption
    • systolic ejection 
      • period between aortic valve opening and closing
    • isovolumetric relaxation
      • period between aortic valve closing and mitral valve opening
    • rapid filling
      • period just after mitral valve opening
    • reduced filling
      • period just before mitral valve closure
  • Sounds   
    • S1
      • mitral and tricuspid valve closure
      • loudest at mitral area
    • S2 
      • aortic and pulmonary valve closure
      • loudest at left sternal border
    • S3  (in early diastole during rapid ventricular filling phase)
      • associated with ↑ filling pressures
      • more common with dilated ventricles
      • normal in children and pregnant women
    • S4 ("atrial kick")
      • in late diastole
      • high atrial pressure 
      • associated with ventricular hypertrophy 
      • left atrium must push against stiff LV wall
  • Jugular venous pulse (JVP)    
    • a wave 
      • atrial contraction
    • c wave
      • RV contraction 
      • tricuspid valve bulging into atrium
    • v wave
      • ↑ atrial pressure due to filling against closed tricuspid valve       

 

 

Please rate topic.

Average 5.0 of 5 Ratings

Questions (6)
EVIDENCE & REFERENCES (8)
VIDEOS (3)
Topic COMMENTS (12)
Private Note